You might love your car and appreciate its purpose, but there is a big chance you never stopped and looked at your windshield. If somebody would ask you “what is a windshield made of?” you’d say simply “it’s made of glass”. The see-through object in front of you car is not just a piece of glass. It is a safety object that protects you from wind, rain, dust, rocks, debris. If there was no windshield, particles of dust (especially where we live in Phoenix, Arizona) would get into your eyes and make you weep why no one ever invented the windshield. Beside this, if there was no windshield, you would be severely hurt in even minor accidents. Now that we made sure you understand the practical importance, let’s see how windshields became what they are today.
History of the Windshields
As we have said, it is not “just glass”. Although glass has been used for over 7000 years, glass alone is not the best protection. First windshield was invented in 1904. First windshields were made of plain glass and this hasn’t shown to be good choice. Glass windshields were easy to shatter and therefore were not safe. Tempered glass was harder than regular and this was second choice of manufacturer. It was a better choice, but jet, not the best. Over the years numerous accidents have shown that this still is quite fragile and that windshield production needs improvement. This improvement came in shape of laminated glass. Windshields before laminated glass were fragile and this extra layer in between gives windshield the flexibility and is crucial for safety of the passengers.
Laminated safety glass is the best car industry could give us so far. Two layers of glass and one plastic layer of poly-vinyl butyral in between them are maximum of safety provided from where we stand. Maybe in ten years they will invent something more resistant, but for our century, this is the best we can get.
Why is three-layer constitution of windshield important? Not because of flexibility, but because of the fact that the windshield is literary holding the roof of the car. Stronger the windshield, less chances that roof will end up on the passenger seats. Having a stronger windshield also limits the amount of windshield chips that you will get throughout the vehicles life. Chad Alexander who owns Dealer Auto Glass AZ in Phoenix, Arizona, has said they have seen a huge decrease in windshield replacements in Phoenix because of these stronger windshield.
What is glass made of? Glass consists of soda ash (Na2 CO3), dolomite ((CaMg)(CO3)2), cullet, silica sand (SiO2) and limestone (CaCO3). Small quantities of potassium oxide and aluminum oxide are often added. This is an interesting process which includes “Float method” of making the windshield. Glass is made of water and the elements we mentioned before – silica sand, soda ash, dolomite, limestone and cullet. These are melted at extremely high temperatures and mixed with water. After the “float chamber” with molten layer, it is transported on rollers. Glass cools down gradually and is later cut using diamond tools, since diamond is the hardest rock mankind knows and edges of these cutters are very precise.
In later process, windshields are made of this glass and the special plastic layer we have mentioned above. They are shaped and come in many different sizes. They can be tinted and with special sensors. To find out more about the process of windshield making, visit Youtube.com and watch some of the great industrial videos on “ how its made” topics.
via Blogger Ever Wonder What Windshields Are Made Of?
During the 1920's the American economy was full of fast changing development. Lots and lots of new job opportunities opened up due to the manufacturing business nearly doubling. One of the new manufacturing businesses was the invention of Henry Ford's Model T Compact Car. Nowadays, we look at cars as something we see millions of on the road. Brands such as Ford, Chevrolet, Dodge, Jeep, Toyota, Honda, and Nissan are industries that have produced cars by the millions. Some are pricey, some are not. However all these cars date back to one particular person. Henry Ford. Ford was not the first person to assemble a car, but his methods and prices were the easiest and cheapest. Cars back in the early 1900's were seen as something only the wealthy could own and were a supreme luxury to own. Growing up, Ford dreamed of making a car affordable for everyone. That he did pretty well. Ford quoted earlier in his life, "I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for the family but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It... will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one." In the 108, the Tin Lizzie, or Model T, was put out onto the market for a starting price of only $850! Families rushed to but this car because they could travel well over 15 miles from their home for the first time in their lives. Many wanted to work for Ford because he paid $5 instead of the $2 or $3 that most factories paid. It may be grueling work at times but they were paid more for shorter hours. Families form everywhere rushed to own one of these remarkable vehicles.
results of the automobile
In order to make his cars more affordable, Ford introduced what is called an installment plan in 1914. This plan stated that people could pay a small amount at a time for their automobile, instead of saving up for years to make the purchase. Many other companies and industries began to use this model as well. It is obvious that we still use this method today and we very frequently use it. By 1925, the Model T reduced to a price of only $290! The rise of this vehicle caused many industries to grow. Millions of people were needed to make bodies, rubber, glass, steel, and paint for the car. All of these specifications needed someone to fill the spot, so many people found work. Another industry that grew was the road making industry. Millions of dollars were spent paving roads, fixing roads, and making bridges so it was safe for drivers. Gas stations, restaurants, motels, car insurance, and car repair shops were opened and boomed as well. This invention was in fact part of the Booming 1920's.
assembling the model t.
Making a car can be a long, hard, and skill-demanding process. To reduce to the
time of making the Model T, Ford introduced the moving assembly line. "This
system used Conveyor belts to move parts and partly assembled cars from one
group of workers to another." (Social Studies book pg. 755) One worker may be
skilled in putting on tires but not skilled is assembling the frame. One worker
will be at one spot in the line and the other will be at another spot, working
to assemble the product. The assembly line involves many parts and many workers
at different stations. Conveyor belts move the product alond and the worker does
the same job over and over again. Instead of workers going to the parts, the
parts came to the workers. For the Model T, The chassis and the engine are put
together on two different lines, and workers on a third line attach them
together. The assembled chassis then goes on to be connected with the body of
the car. With so many people working at once, the time it takes to produce a
product can be cut in half very easily. Almost all factories and product making
businesses today use the assembly line. It has changed since then to make it
even easier than it was before.
Check out the assembly line below!